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南京翻譯公司分享四個進階的英漢翻譯規則 

發布時間: 2018-03-06  點擊:         打印本頁

  南京翻譯公司分享四個進階的英漢翻譯規則
  (一)、對等譯法
  在翻譯過程中,我們一般都可以在譯文語言中找到和原文中的某個單詞、詞組或成語意義上的對等表達。
  因此,對等譯法是翻譯中最常見、最重要的翻譯方法。一般說來,英漢兩種語言中單詞的對等率較高,而詞組、成語、諺語的對等率相對低一些。
  一、單詞對等
  book (名詞)書
  stand (動詞)站
  big (形容詞)大的
  and (連接詞)和
  當然,這兩種語言中存在著差異的"對等"單詞也不少,例如:從語義上講,漢語單詞"杯子"并不完全等同于英語單詞"cup",而是對等于"cup + mug + glass";從感情色彩上來講,"知識分子"并不完全對等于"intellectual"。
  二、成語對等
  成語的對等是從三個方面體現出來的,一是比喻意義,一是比喻形式,再一個是感情色彩。
  三者中比喻意義是最重要的。感情色彩的對等同比喻意義的對等幾乎同樣重要。
  至于比喻形式,能對等則應盡量對等,實在對等不了,就應當機立斷,大膽放棄。
  turn a blind eye to
  視而不見
  talk black into white
  顛倒黑白
  walk right into the trap
  自投羅網
  hold one's sides with laughter
  捧腹大笑
  三、諺語對等
  Many hands make light work.
  人多好辦事。
  Haste makes waste.
  欲速則不達。
  Where there's a will, there's a way.
  有志者事竟成。
  Birds of a feather flock together.
  物以類聚,人以群分。
  Give a person a dose of his own medicine.
  以其人之道還治其人之身。
  All good things must come to an end.
  天下沒有不散的筵席。
  諺語和成語一樣,英漢兩種語言中的對等大多數也是從比喻意義、比喻形式和比喻色彩三個方面體現出來的。
  同樣,比喻意義的對等是最重要的,感情色彩的對等幾乎同等重要,在保證這兩方面的基礎上,再來考慮比喻形式的對等。
  (二)、重譯法
  在英譯漢中,需要根據原文語境,正確運用詞語重復方法,將英文避免重復的詞語再現于漢語之中。這種反復使用某些詞語的翻譯方法就叫重譯法。
  在英文中名詞第二次出現時,經常會以代詞來代替,甚至有時還會出現省略的情況。這種情況漢譯時必須進行必要的重復,否則會影響句子意思的表達。
  1.重復作賓語的名詞
  (1)Let us first begin to revise our safety and sanitary regulations.
  讓我們首先來修改一下我們的安全規則和衛生規則吧。
  (2) We should learn how to analyze and solve problem.
  我們應學會如何分析問題和解決問題。
  2.重復作表語的名詞
  (1) Peter is your friend as much as he is mine.
  彼得既是你的朋友,也是我的朋友。
  (2) She became a millionaire-all by herself.
  她成為一個百萬富翁--一個白手起家的百萬富翁。
  3.重復英語介詞短語前所省略的名詞
  英語中常重復使用介詞短語,共同做某一名詞的后置定語,并將第二個、第三個介詞短語前的名詞省略,譯成漢語時則往往要將此名詞重譯。
  (1)This man often got into argument with his colleagues or with the boss.
  這個人經常和他的同事們爭吵,或者同老板爭吵。
  (2) Ignorance is the mother of fear as well as of admiration.
  無知是羨慕的根源,也是恐懼的根源。
  (三)、重復手段
  英語句子中往往重復關鍵性的詞,以給讀者留下深刻的印象,英譯漢時往往可以采用同樣的重復手段。
  1.英語原文中有詞的重復,譯成漢語時可以保持同樣的詞的重復。
  (1) Work while you work, play while you play.
  該工作時就工作,該玩時就玩。
  (2) Blood must atone for blood.
  血債要用血來還。
  (3) Year after year and century after century the moon goes through its cycle.
  一年又一年,一個世紀又一個世紀,月亮盈虧變化,周而復始。
  此外,英語對仗句的前后兩部分中往往有詞的重復,譯成漢語時對仗句可以保持同樣的重復。
  (1) Eye for eye, tooth for tooth.
  以眼還眼,以牙還牙。
  (2) Out of sight, out of mind.
  眼不見,心不煩。
  2.英語原文中有詞的重復,譯成漢語時有時可以用同義詞重復之。
  例如:No pains, no gains.
  不勞無獲。
  (四)、語態轉換
  被動語態的廣泛使用是英語區別于漢語的顯著特點之一。在英語中,大凡為了強調受事者,以突出其鮮明位置,無需提及主動者、無意點明主動者、無從說出主動者,為了上下文的銜接與連貫等等,或是出于禮貌措辭圓通等方面的考慮不愿說出動作的執行者是誰的,往往都采用被動語態。
  此外,由于英語被動結構能給讀者以間接客觀、不帶個人感情色彩的印象,因而在科技文獻、政論文章和新聞報道等文體中使用尤為頻繁。但是漢語采用的主要是語義型句式,大多數被動意義并不一定非得通過被動語句來表達,而可以通過形式上主動、語義上被動的句式予以體現。
  英語和漢語在被動語態使用上存在的這種差異決定了英漢翻譯中語態轉換的必要性。
  一、譯成漢語的被動句
  使用"被、受、遭、讓、給、把、得到、加以、得以、為......所、由......來"等詞匯。
  Problems should be resolved in good time.
  問題應及時加以解決。
  He was praised by his teacher.
  他得到了老師的表揚。
  二、譯成漢語主動句
  (一)保存原文主語(原句主語通常為無生命的名詞)
  With the development of social economy,cultural traditions must be kept.
  隨著社會的發展,文化傳統必須保留
  The meeting is scheduled for April 6th.
  會議定于四月六日舉行。
  (二)主賓顛倒(by+行為主體)
  Heat and light can be given off by this chemical change.
  這種化學反應能發出熱和光。
  Only a small portion of solar energy is now being used.
  現在我們只能利用一小部分太陽能。
  The Nanjing translation company shares four advanced English Chinese translation rules
  (1), equivalent translation method
  In the translation process, we can generally find the equivalent of a word, phrase or idiom in the text of the target text.
  Therefore, the peer-to-peer translation is the most common and important translation method in translation. Generally speaking, the equivalent rate of words in the two languages of English and Chinese is higher, while the equivalence ratio of phrases, idioms and proverbs is relatively low.
  One, word equivalence
  Book (nouns) book
  Stand (verb) station
  Big (adjective) is big
  And (connectives) and
  Of course, these two kinds of language differences in the "equivalence" words are many, for example: semantically, Chinese word "Cup" is not the same as the English word "Cup", but is "cup + MUG + glass"; from the emotional perspective, "intellectuals" is not completely equal to "intellectual".
  Two. Equivalence of Idioms
  The equivalence of idioms is embodied in three aspects, one is metaphorical meaning, one is metaphorical form, and another is emotional color.
  In the three, the metaphorical meaning is the most important. Emotional equivalence is almost equally important to the equivalent of metaphorical meaning.
  As for the form of metaphor, you should try to peer to peer peer, not really, it should act decisively, boldly give up.
  Turn a blind eye to
  Turn a blind eye to
  Talk black into white
  Confuse right and wrong
  Walk right into the trap
  Fall into a snare
  Hold one's sides with laughter
  Uproarious
  Three, proverb equivalence
  Many hands make light work.
  Many people do things well.
  Haste makes waste.
  The speed of desire is not.
  Where there's a will, there's a way.
  Where there is a will, there is a way.
  Birds of a feather flock together.
  Like attracts like., Birds of a feather flock together.
  Give a person a dose of his own medicine.
  Take the way of the man to treat the person.
  All good things must come to an end.
  There is no banquet in the world.
  Like proverbs and idioms, the equal majority of the two languages in English and Chinese are also reflected from three aspects of figurative, figurative and figurative colors.
  Similarly, the equivalence of metaphorical meaning is the most important. Emotional equivalence is almost equally important. On the basis of guaranteeing these two aspects, we will consider the equivalence of metaphorical form again.
  (二)、重譯法
  In the English translation of Hanzhoung, it is necessary to correct the repetition of words and expressions in the Chinese language according to the context of the original text. This translation method repeatedly use certain words called retranslation method.
  In English, when the noun appears second times, it is often replaced by pronouns and sometimes even ellipsis. This kind of situation must be repeated in the Chinese translation, otherwise it will affect the expression of the meaning of the sentence.
  1. a noun that repeats as an object
  (1) Let us first begin to revise our safety and sanitary regulations.
  Let's first change our safety rules and health rules.
  (2) We should learn how to analyze and solve problem.
  We should learn how to analyze and solve problems.
  2. repeat predicative nouns
  (1) Peter is your friend as much as he is mine.
  Peter is both your friend and my friend.
  (2) She became a millionaire-all by herself.
  She became a millionaire - a self-made millionaire.
  3. the nouns omitted before the English prepositional phrase is repeated
  Often repeated use of prepositional phrases in English, to do a post modifier noun, and the second and third prepositional phrases before the noun ellipsis, when translated into Chinese is often the noun retranslation.
  (1) This man often got into argument with his colleagues or with the
  The man often quarreled with his colleagues, or quarreled with the boss.
  (2) Ignorance is the mother of fear as well as of admiration.
  Ignorance is the root of envy, and the root of fear.
  (three), repeating means
  In English sentences, key words are often repeated in order to make a deep impression on the readers. The same repetition can often be used in English translation.
  1. the repetition of words in the original English text, and the same words can be kept when they are translated into Chinese.
  (1) Work while you work, play while you play.
  It's time to work, and it's time to play.
  (2) Blood must atone for blood.
  Blood will have blood.
  (3) Year after year and century after century the moon goes through its
  One year after another, one century and another century, the moon's profit and loss change all over the world.
  In addition, the two part of the sentence in English and antithesis often have word repetition, antithesis sentence translation into Chinese can keep repeating the same.
  (1) Eye for eye, tooth for tooth.
  An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.
  (2) Out of sight, out of mind.
  No eye, no heart.
  2. the repetition of words in the original English text can be repeated in synonyms when translated into Chinese.
  For example, No pains, no gains.
  No pain, no gain。
  (four), voice conversion
  The widespread use of passive voice is one of the distinct features of English that distinguishes it from Chinese. In English, all in order to emphasize the patient, to highlight its distinctive position
  An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.
  (1) Eye for eye, tooth for tooth.
  (2) Out of sight, out of mind.
  No eye, no heart.
  2. the repetition of words in the original English text can be repeated in synonyms when translated into Chinese.
  For example, No pains, no gains.
  No pain, no gain。
  (four), voice conversion
  The widespread use of passive voice is one of the distinct features of English that distinguishes it from Chinese. In English, all in order to emphasize the patient, to highlight its distinctive position, without mention of active, initiative, it is impossible to say no to the initiative, the cohesion and coherence and so on, or who is polite wording tact and other considerations to tell the action executor, is often used in the passive voice.
  In addition, English passive structure can give readers an indirect and objective impression, so it is especially frequently used in the literature of science and technology, political articles and news reports. However, the main form of Chinese is the semantic sentence pattern. Most of the passive meanings do not have to be expressed by passive sentences, but can be reflected through active, semantically passive sentences.
  The difference between English and Chinese in the use of passive voice determines the necessity of the translation of the language in English and Chinese translation.
  A passive sentence translated into Chinese
  Use of words such as "be, receive, suffer, give, give, give, get, to, to, to, for, to...".
  Problems should be resolved in good time.
  The problem should be solved in time.
  He was praised by his teacher.
  He was praised by the teacher.
  Two, translated into Chinese active sentence
  (1) preserve the subject of the original (the original sentence is usually a inanimate noun)
  With the development of social economy, cultural traditions must be kept.
  With the development of society, cultural traditions must be preserved
  The meeting is scheduled for April 6th.
  The meeting is scheduled to be held in April 6th.
  (two) the guest reversed (by+ behavior)
  Heat and light can be given off by this chemical change.
  This chemical reaction gives out heat and light.
  Only a small portion of solar energy is now being used.
  Now we can only use a small portion of the solar energy.

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