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法律論文翻譯中的常見問題和如何克服 

發布時間: 2018-04-09  點擊:         打印本頁

  法律作為一種對言語和行為的規范,而且是由政府或者其他權利機構制定所認可的一種規范。法律語言是指普通國家在立法、司法和執法所使用的一種文體,法律語言是廣闊復雜、嚴謹的。法律翻譯作為翻譯行業中的高端服務,它主要服務律師,外資企業,進出口公司等社會上層群體,質量要求和技術難度都相當高。作為法律語言學主要研究內容之一,法律翻譯具有其獨特的語言特點,其中最重要的一個特征就是它的精確性。迄今為止,幾乎所有的從事法律語言研究的學者都認為,精確性是法律翻譯的靈魂,也是法律的基本格調。本文從法律翻譯角度來談關于法律論文的翻譯。
  本文主要分為二個部分,第一部分是分析法律論文翻譯中存在的常見問題,第二部分則是分析法律論文中句子的特點及其怎樣實現翻譯的精確性。
法律論文翻譯.png
  一、漏譯和增譯:
  由于法律翻譯大都使用長句,結構復雜,給譯者帶來不少困難,因而常見的問題就是漏譯或增譯部分成分,針對法律論文中的句子特點,查閱相關的資料就顯得尤為重要。
  二、法律術語翻譯不當:
  法律翻譯中存在大量的專業術語,其譯法是不能單憑譯者的個人喜好自由決定的,必須采用固定的表達法.隨意的譯法并不符合法律翻譯的語體特點,并有可能造成誤解,導致與客戶之間的糾紛。如“不可抗力”只能譯成forcemajeure,而不能譯成irresistibleforce;“放棄權利”只能譯成waiverofright或waivertheright,而不能譯成quitrights等.
  三、搭配不當:
  無論寫論文或翻譯,都離不開選詞用字,一個詞用的準確與否關鍵是看與其他搭配的是否得當.詞與詞的搭配在語義上應相互配合,合乎邏輯事理的說話習慣同時也要符合語法規定.
  四、歧義:
  歧義是對某一句子某一詞組或某一個詞的意義存在兩個(或更多的)解釋.例如:Decisiverightisgiventothemarriedmanandwoman.此句中形容詞married是只修飾women還是修飾women和men兩個名詞?由于形容詞所修飾的成分不明而造成了歧義.再比如:“原告人基于下述理由起訴被告人要求損害賠償.”句子的結構糾纏不清,意思含糊,可能有兩種理解,即“原告人要求損害賠償”或“被告人要求損害賠償”.要解決這一問題,根據原文句意,可在被告人后加一逗號,譯成“原告人基于下述理由起訴被告人,要求損害賠償.”因此,在實際論文翻譯中,一定要重視法律語言這一特性,盡力避免歧義的出現。
  法律論文翻譯.png
  由此可見,在法律論文翻譯中是有很多需要注意的地方。如何克服這些問題就是優秀的翻譯人員需要處理的了。為了能將法律論文翻譯的更好,譯員翻譯用語應該特別清晰、并且有最大精確度和準確度。每個段落都需要有邏輯的闡述、提法簡潔、明確了解使用的概念。
  南京翻譯公司在廣泛涉獵法律論文翻譯及翻譯理論著作及相關論文的基礎上,對法律論文翻譯的精確性及其翻譯品質進行探索,力求總結和歸納法律論文翻譯的特點和技巧。除此之外,旗下譯員需要博覽群書,不斷拓寬自己的知識面,豐富人生閱歷。并對法律法典有相當程度的認識,做到靈活運用,恰如其分地翻譯。
  As a norm of speech and behavior, law is a standard approved by the government or other rights institutions. Legal language refers to a style used by ordinary countries in legislation, judicature and law enforcement, and legal language is broad, complex and rigorous. As a high-end service in the translation industry, legal translation mainly serves lawyers, foreign enterprises, import and export companies and other social groups, which have high quality requirements and technical difficulties. As one of the main contents of forensic linguistics, legal translation has its unique linguistic features, and the most important feature is its accuracy. So far, almost all scholars engaged in legal language studies believe that accuracy is the soul of legal translation and the basic style of law. This paper talks about the translation of legal papers from the perspective of legal translation.
  This article is divided into two parts. The first part is the analysis of the common problems in the translation of legal papers. The second part is the analysis of the characteristics of the sentences in the legal thesis and how to achieve the accuracy of translation.
  1. Leaking and increasing translation:
  Because most of the legal translation uses long sentences, the structure is complex and brings many difficulties to the translator. Therefore, the common problems are missing or adding some components. In view of the characteristics of the sentence in the legal thesis, it is particularly important to consult the relevant information.
  Two. Improper translation of legal terms:
  There are a large number of professional terminology in legal translation. Its translation method is not determined by the individual's personal preferences. A fixed expression must be adopted. Random translation does not conform to the linguistic features of legal translation, and it may cause misunderstandings and lead to disputes with customers. For example, "force majeure" can only be translated into ForceMajeure, but can not be translated into irresistibleforce; "waiver" can only be translated into waiverofright or waivertheright, not quitrights, etc.
  Three. Improper Collocation:
  Whether a word is written or translated, it can not be separated from a word of choice. The key to the accuracy of a word is to see if it is appropriate to the other collocations. The collocation of words and words should complement each other semantically, and the logical and logical speaking habit also conforms to the grammatical rules.
  Four. Ambiguity:
  Ambiguity is the two (or more) interpretation of the meaning of a phrase or a word in a sentence. For example, in Decisiverightisgiventothemarriedmanandwoman., is the adjective married only modifying the women or modifying the two nouns of the women and men? "The plaintiff prosecuted the defendant for damages on the basis of the following reasons." the structure of the sentence is entangled and ambiguous. There may be two understandings, that is, "the plaintiff requires compensation for damages" or "the defendant's claim for damages". For the following reasons, the defendant should be prosecuted for damages. "Therefore, in the translation of the actual paper, we must pay attention to the characteristics of the legal language and try to avoid the appearance of ambiguity.
  Legal thesis translation.Png
  It can be seen that there are many points to be noticed in the translation of legal papers. How to overcome these problems is what good translators need to deal with. In order to translate the legal papers better, the interpreter's translation terms should be clear, and have the maximum accuracy and accuracy. Each paragraph needs logical explanation, formulation, concise and clear understanding of the concept of use.
  based on the extensive involvement of the theoretical works of translation and translation of legal papers and related papers, explores the accuracy of the translation of legal papers and their translation qualities, and tries to sum up and summarize the characteristics and techniques of the translation of legal papers. In addition, the interpreter's need to be learned in books, expand their knowledge and enrich the experience of life. We also have a considerable understanding of the code of law, so that we can use it flexibly and translate appropriately.

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