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漢英翻譯中的詞類轉換 

發布時間: 2017-03-14  點擊:         打印本頁

在漢英翻譯中可進行各類詞類的轉換,例如: 漢語動詞轉換成英語名詞、形容詞、介詞;漢語形容詞或副詞轉換成英語名詞;漢語名詞轉換成英語動詞等等。個中,漢語動詞轉換成英語抽象名詞尤為廣泛。高校常用的翻譯教材,如張培基、呂瑞昌、馮慶華等編撰的翻譯教材均將這種轉換列在第一位。請看以下各例:
例1. 中國當局承諾紕謬無核國度應用核兵器。
如不留意詞性轉換,譯文可能是: 
The Chinese government undertakes not to use (that it will not use) nuclear weapons against non-nuclear countries.
這種譯文顯得有些白話化,不敷穩重。不如改用抽象名詞non-use:
The Chinese government undertakes non-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear countries.
例2. 禁制任何叛國、決裂國度、鼓動兵變及竊取國度機密的行動。
譯文一:To prohibit any act of treason, acts to split the country, incite rebellion and steal secrets.
譯文二:To prohibit any act of treason, secession, sedition and theft of state secrets.
以上譯文一應用 split , incite, steal 等動詞固然語義精確,但似乎不敷穩重。譯文二應用抽象名詞,因而顯得文字嚴謹,合適正式司法條則的風格。
例3. 技巧引進合同應當訂明下列事項:引進技巧的保密義務,改進技巧的歸屬和分享。
譯文一:Provisions on the obligation to keep confidential the imported technology, and ownership of the right to copy any improvements made to the technology.
譯文二:Provisions on the confidentiality obligation as regards the imported technology, and ownership of the right to copy any improvements made to the technology.
對于"保密"這一動作譯文一應用響應的動詞 keeping confidential,顯得過于白話化。譯文二轉用英語抽象名詞confidentiality,在司法文件中顯得較為得體。
例4. 此次十三屆八中全會開得好。
譯文一:The recent Eighth Plenary Session of the Thirteen Central Committee was a successful meeting.
譯文二:The recent Eighth Plenary Session of the 13th CPC Central Committee was a success.
會"開得好"很少有人直譯為動詞 was well conducted。
以上譯文一運器具體名詞 a successful meeting 比較常見;譯文二則將其濃縮為一個名詞 success,更為簡潔。

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