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南京翻譯教你真正同聲傳譯的技巧 

發布時間: 2017-12-03  點擊:         打印本頁

  同傳是一個融理論和實踐為一體的職業,我們承認他確實不容易,但并非就高不可攀,否則也就不會有今天的職業培訓了,既然他的實踐性很強,那么,肯定其中有大量的技巧在里面。
  我總結了一下,同傳技巧的核心或者靈魂是斷句,即將簡單句劃分為主謂賓,將復句斷分為不同的意群 (sense group), 并最終還是回到主謂賓上來。下面我將從幾個方面給大家系統介紹一下一些同傳技巧,這些技巧有些是從我的實踐活動中獲取的。
  1 、節奏章法:
  即翻譯的切入點和時間的選擇。英文的傳譯音節通常比中文稍多一點,比如,如果讀一種中文要用時 30 秒,用相似的節奏讀該段中文的英文翻譯稿可能要耗時 35 秒以上,所以,演講中文稿,傳譯英文時,速度需要加快一點,反之則稍微慢一點。就切入時間來講的話,可以根據自己對語言的駕馭能力以及自己的瞬時記憶力來具體對待和處理。如果自己相對在這兩方面都有比較扎實的功底,則可以滯后演講人 3/4 句或一句,如果欠缺一點, 則必須在滯后半句后及時跟上。
  注意:同傳翻譯是內容對內容的翻譯,而不是詞組對詞組的翻譯,首先必須在理解的基礎上才能動口翻譯,否則一些獨立的詞組或者短語是不能傳遞有效信息的。換而言之,并不是演講者蹦出一個單詞你就緊緊跟上,這樣不久你就會發現自己被演講者無意中導入了一個死胡同。
  2 、歐化句式:
  同傳在詞語的翻譯上可以做到地道和相對準確,但句子結構不可能向交傳那樣按照中文的句式習慣組織安排,對于英漢傳譯,往往需要采用英語句式的順序:
  例 1 : Frankly, ideas and goods will travel around the globe with or without our help.
  譯:坦率地講,思想和商品都將會在全球流通,不管有沒有我們的幫助。
  例 2 : we should look for polices which help and do not harm our neighbors.
  譯:我們應該尋求各種政策,使之幫助而不是損害我們的領國。
  3 、意群斷句和巧用連詞:
  即我剛才所提到的大可不必緊跟演講人,只要保持半句到大半句即可,將句子劃分為不同的句群。處理好長句,是同傳的基本功之一,翻譯長句,除了斷成意群外還有一個關鍵要掌握,即英文句子之所以長是因為避免重復使用同一個詞,于是用 who, which, that 來代替主語或者賓語,因而使得句子很長,而在中文中就不怕重復使用這個詞,例如:that is the single monetary policy which will be discussed at the next European Union conference.
  譯:那就是單一貨幣政策//該政策將在下一屆歐盟會議上討論。
  為了保證譯出語的連貫性和準確性,同傳時盡量使用譯入語的文法結構,在將其斷為多個句群后可以使用一些潤滑劑,即連詞,將單個的句群聯系起來,如:
  how can the European Union contribute to the development of European film and television industry which is competitive in the world market, forward looking and capable of radiating the influence of European culture and of creating jobs in Europe?
  譯:歐盟怎樣做才能對歐洲的電影和電視業有所貢獻,//使它在國際市場上具有競爭力//使其前景不錯并且有能力發揮歐洲文化的影響,并且在歐洲創造更多的就業機會呢?
  該句大體上循著原句的結構,在將其斷為不同的意群后采用了一些連詞將其有機地串起來,效果不錯。
  再比如:
  The uniqueness of the Caux Round Table lies not in our expertise in intergovernmental relationship, but in our dedication to honest discussion of international issues and to building trust and friendship among corporate leader form Japan, Europe and US.
  譯: 科克思圓桌會議是獨特的//不過這不在于我們擅長改善政府間的關系//而在于我們致力于坦誠的探討//即探討國際問題//同時還致力于建立信任和友誼 // 特別是在企業領導之間//他們來自于美國,日本和歐洲。
  例如: it is normal for companies to suffer significant losses at the start of operation.
  譯:正常的是//公司會有較大的虧損//在剛開業時尤其如此。例如:our foreign secretary on one occasion spelt our objectives in terms of three quite simple principles which I think are still true.
  譯:我們的外交大臣有一次闡明了我們的目標//它主要包括三項簡單的原則// 我想現在還適用。
  4、調整順序:
  在一些有 after and before 的句子中可以將其反說,比如:
  I would like to make one point clear before I move on to the next point.
  譯:我想先澄清一下,然后再講下一部分。
  I would like to move on to the next part after I clarify one point.
  我想談下一部分,在這之前先澄清一點。
  The Japanese surrendered in 1945 after the US practiced two bombs.
  日本在 1945 年投降了,在這之前,美國投放了兩顆原子彈。
  5、 轉換詞性和語態
  1 ) 名詞轉動詞
  例如: the development and application of new telecom service, 如果聽到整個句子的主語后才開始切入翻譯的話就會稍微顯得滯后了一些,此時我們可以試著將這些名字翻譯成動詞,這樣其實也符合英語的表達方式,可以譯為:開發和運用新的電信業務。再如;
  In China, the full opening up and the profound reform in the public services areas to the foreign counterparts greatly give impetus to the development of the tertiary industry. 可以將該句翻譯成:在中國, 全面開放和深化改革公共服務領域,并將其向國外同行開放,這極大地推動第三產業的發展。相應地還有一些同類的表達方式:
  Clear evidence of:清楚地表明
  Give impetus to: 有力地推動
  An obvious violation of 顯然違反了
  2)被動轉主動:
  英語中大量地使用被動句,目的主要是為了強調或者平衡句子結構,這種表達方式與漢語有較大的差別,所以在翻譯英語中的被動語態時有些吃力,特別是當句子的主語比較長時更是困難,在這種情況下,我建議將語態由被動轉成主動,往往有一種柳暗花明的感覺:比如: Arrangement must be made to guarantee the basic life necessities which could be available to the people in the earthquake hit areas. 必須做出安排
  再如:
  China‘s diplomatic practice is seriously guided by the five principles of peaceful coexistence. 可以翻譯為:中國的外交活動是嚴格遵循原則的,即和平共處 5 項原則。
  6 、糾錯訣竅:
  一般來說,在同傳中不會有回過頭來重新改正自己錯誤的可能性,但也不絕對,所以,如果具備了改錯的空間,當然提倡有錯必改。對于中翻英的改錯,應該在所說錯的地方趕緊加上: I mean, or rather, 對于英翻中來說,在說錯的地方馬上更上:應該是,或者準確地說,應該是
  7 、緊跟數字:
  同傳和交傳最大的不同點是給譯員的反映空間不足,所以在交傳時所遇到的筆記問題在同傳中就相對淡化了。針對數字問題,在同傳中一定要緊跟演講者的數字,否則瞬間記憶無法對很多的數字進行長時間的保存。
  8 、丟車保帥,隨機應變。
  因為同傳的性質決定了不可能對演講者的內容做出 100% 的翻譯,那么在這里面就存在一個價值判斷和信息取舍的問題了,無論譯員遇到多大的問題,一定要記住:翻譯活動都將風雨無阻。所謂的丟車保帥指的是如果一旦出現譯員所聽到的信息有些模糊時就不要再將精力放在回憶那些模糊的信息,而是盡量將聽到的和理解了的信息立刻翻譯出去,同時,如果句子中出現了太多的修飾性的詞語可以在翻譯時將其進行取舍以保證句子中的核心意思的完整和相對準確和到位的翻譯。
  如:從帕米爾高原到東海之濱,從北國冰城到南沙群島,到處洋溢著偉大的中國人民歡慶北京申奧成功的歡樂氣息。
  9 、訓練方法:
  在巴黎高等翻譯學院采用的是數字或者文章逆誦法:
  即:從 300 開始數,數到一個數字時停下來翻譯,完了之后再繼續接著剛才的數字往回數,其理論根據是訓練譯員的兩棲作戰能力,即左耳朵進譯入語,大腦分析時右耳朵再接著聽譯入語的下一部分。
  概括起來,同傳的技巧可以概括為八個字:順譯、斷句、重復、刪減。
  Si is an integration of theory and Practice for the development of occupation, we admit that he really is not easy, but not too high to be reached, otherwise it would not have today's occupation training, since his practice is very strong, so, certainly including a large number of skills in.
  I summed up the core skills, Si or soul is divided into simple sentences which is SVO sentence, the fault is divided into different groups (sense, group) and eventually returned to SVO. I will give you the system from several aspects to introduce some Si skills, these skills are acquired from my practice.
  1, rhythmic chapter method:
  It is the choice of the point of entry and the time of translation. Interpreting English syllable usually slightly more than Chinese, for example, if you read a Chinese to in 30 seconds, read the section Chinese with similar rhythm English translation may take more than 35 seconds, so Chinese speech draft, interpreting English, need to speed up the speed a little, otherwise a little slower. In terms of the time to cut in, you can deal with and deal with it according to his ability to control the language and his own instantaneous memory. If you have a solid foundation in these two aspects, you can delay the speaker's 3/4 sentence or sentence. If there is a lack of it, you must catch up with the delayed half sentence.
  Note: the contents of the contents of the simultaneous translation is the translation, rather than phrase for phrase translation, translation must first to speak on the basis of understanding, or some independent phrase or phrase is not efficient information transfer. In other words, it is not the speaker who jumps out a word to catch up with you, so you will soon find yourself being led into a dead end by the speaker.
  2, European sentence:
  It can do an authentic and relatively accurate in terms of the translation, but the sentence structure may not pass that sentence in accordance with the Chinese arrange to pay for customs, English Chinese translation, often require the use of English sentence order:
  Example 1:Frankly, ideas and goods will travel around the globe with or without
  Frankly speaking, both ideas and goods will circulate around the world, regardless of our help.
  Example 2:we should look for polices which help and do not harm our
  Translation: we should seek all kinds of policies to help it, not to harm our country.
  3, meaning punctuate and clever use of conjunctions:
  I just mentioned the need not follow the speaker, as long as the half sentence more than half of the sentence to sentence, will be divided into different sentences. To deal with long sentences, is one of the basic skills of simultaneous translation of long sentences, in addition to break into meaningful but also a key to grasp, namely English sentences have long because of avoiding the repetition of the same word, then use the who, which, that to replace the subject or object, so that the sentence is very long, and is not afraid of repeat in Chinese in the use of the word, for example: that is the single monetary policy which will be discussed at the next European Union conference.
  That is the single monetary policy / the policy will be discussed at the next meeting of the European union.
  In order to ensure the coherence of the source language and accuracy, try to use the grammar structure of the target language in the Si, broken into multiple sentences can be used after some lubricants, namely conjunctions, individual sentences together, such as:
  How can the European Union contribute to the development of European, development, and it is also known as the following three aspects.
  Translation: how can the EU of European film and television industry contribution / make it are competitive in the international market and the prospect of a good / / and have the ability to play the influence of European culture and of creating jobs in Europe?
  In general, the sentence is followed by the structure of the original sentence. After it is broken into a different group of meaning groups, some conjunctions are used to string them together, and the effect is good.
  Again, for example:
  The uniqueness of the Caux Round Table lies not in our expertise in intergovernmental relationship, but in our dedication to honest discussion of international issues and to building trust and friendship among corporate leader form Japan, Europe and US.
  The Kocs roundtable is unique but it is not / / we are good at improving relations between the government and the / / that we engage in honest discussion of international issues and / / / / is also committed to building trust and friendship / / they are from the United States especially in the enterprise leadership between Japan and Europe / /.
  For example: it is normal for companies to suffer significant losses at the start
  The normal is / / there will be greater losses / especially in the start. For example, our foreign secretary on one occasion spelt our objectives in terms of
  Our foreign secretary once stated our objectives / / it mainly includes three simple principles / / I think it is suitable.
  4. The order of adjustment:
  In some sentences with after and before, it can be reversed, such as:
  I would like to make one point clear before I move on
  I want to clarify it first and then againPart。
  After clarifying a point, I'd like to continue the next part.
  I'd like to talk about the next part and clarify a little before that.
  After two bombs in the United States, Japan surrendered in 1945.
  Japan surrendered in 1945, and before that, the United States launched two atomic bombs.
  5. Conversion of speech and voice
  1) noun rotating words
  For example: the development and application of new telecommunication services, if you hear the whole sentence after the subjects began to cut the translation would slightly lagged behind some, at this time we can try these names translated into verbs, this is also in line with the English expression, can be translated as: the development and application of new telecommunication services. Again;
  In China, the overall opening and deepening of the reform of foreign counterparts in the field of public service has greatly promoted the development of the third industry. In China, opening up and deepening the reform of public service and opening it to foreign counterparts will greatly promote the development of the third industry. Correspondingly, there are some similar forms of expression:
  Clear evidence: clearly indicated
  Push: push forcefully
  A clear violation of the violation
  2) passive conversion:
  A lot of English passive sentences, the main purpose is to emphasize or balance of sentence structure, this expression is different with Chinese, so the passive voice in English translation of some difficulty, especially when the subject of the sentence is long and is more difficult, in this case, I would recommend by voice passive into active, often have a feeling of dense willow trees and bright flowers: for example: must make arrangements to ensure the basic necessities of life, in the earthquake stricken people. Arrangements must be made
  Again as follows:
  China's diplomatic practice is guided by the five principles of serious peaceful coexistence. China's diplomatic activities are strictly in accordance with the principles, namely, the 5 principles of peaceful coexistence.
  6. The tricks of error correction:
  Generally speaking, in Si will not come back again to correct the possibility of their mistakes, but not absolute, so if you have a correct space, but to advocate wrong will change. To translate the error correction, should be in the wrong place to add: I mean, or, for the British in turn, in the right place at once more: it should be, or rather, should be
  7. Close to the number:
  Si and CI the biggest difference is the lack of space for the interpreter to reflect, so notes problems encountered in consecutive time in Si is relatively weakened. Aiming at the digital problem in Si must follow the numbers, otherwise unable to save instant memory long time for a lot of numbers.
  8, Diuju abandoning it.
  Because of the nature of the Si content is not possible for the speaker to make 100% of the translation, there is a value judgment and choice of information problems in the inside of the interpreter, regardless of facing a big problem, we must remember: translation activities will regardless of the weather. The so-called Diuju abandoning refers to an interpreter if there hear information some fuzzy don't focus on memories of the fuzzy information, but try to hear and understand the information immediately translated out, at the same time, if the sentence there are too much modification of words in translation when will the choice to ensure the core meaning in the sentence is complete and relatively accurate and in place of translation.
  Such as: from the Pamirs to the east coast, from the north to the Spratly Islands City, everywhere is filled with a great Chinese people celebrating the happy atmosphere of Beijing's successful Olympic bid.
  9. Training methods:
  At the Paris Institute of higher translation, the method of numeric or article recitation is adopted.
  Namely: from the beginning of 300, to a digital stop after the translation, then just continue to go to a number of digital, its theory is based on ability of amphibious training interpreters, namely the left ear into the target language, the brain of the right ear and then listen to the translation of the next part.
  To sum up, interpreting skills can be summed up in eight words: syntacticlinearity, punctuation, repetition, omission.

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